Expressions that can be translated to addition, ( + ): sum, plus, added to, in addition, increased by, and more than.

 Verbal expression Algebraic equivalent the sum of x and y x + y or y + x x plus y x + y x increased by y x + y x added to y y + x x in addition to y y + x x more than y y + x

Subtraction
Expressions that can be translated to subtraction, ( - ): difference, minus, subtract, subtract from, less, less than, decreased by, diminished by, lowered by, and exceed.

 Verbal expression Algebraic equivalent the difference between x and y x - y x minus y x - y x decreased by y x - y x diminished by y x - y x lowered by y x - y x exceeds y x - y x less y x - y x less than y y - x subtract x from y y - x

Multiplication
Expressions that can be translated to multiplication, ( × ): product, times, and of. Expressions in multiple of a number are also worth noting: double, twice, triple, thrice, quadruple, four times, etcetera.

 Verbal expression Algebraic equivalent the product of x and y xy x times y xy x of y xy double a number x 2x twice a number y 2y

Division
Expressions that can be translated to division, ( ÷ ): quotient of, divided by, and over.

 Verbal expression Algebraic equivalent the quotient of x and y x/y x divided by y x/y x over y x/y

Equality
The words ‘is’ and ‘by’ denotes equality, ( = ).

 Verbal expression Algebraic equivalent the sum of x and y is z x + y = z x exceeds y by z x - y = z

Other expressions

• The reciprocal of x is 1/x and the reciprocal of x/y is y/x.
• Divide 100 into two parts, if x is one part, the other part is (100 - x)
• For two consecutive numbers, if the first number is x then the second number is (x + 1)
• For two consecutive even or odd numbers, if the first number is x then the second number is (x + 2)
• The square of a number x is x2
• The cube of a number x is x3
• The ratio of x to y is x/y