Geotechnical Engineering

Symbols and Notations
$e$   = void ratio
$n$   = porosity
$w$   = moisture content, water content
$s$   = specific gravity of any substance
$G$   = specific gravity of solids
$S$   = degree of saturation
$V$   = volume of soil mass
$V_a$   = volume of air
$V_w$   = volume of water
$V_s$   = volume of solids
$V_v$   = volume of voids
$W$   = total weight of soil
$W_w$   = weight of water
$W_s$   = weight of solids
$D_r$   = relative density
$\gamma_m$   = unit weight of soil mass, moist unit weight, bulk unit weight
$\gamma_s$   = unit weight of soil solids
$\gamma_w$   = unit weight of water
$\gamma_b$   =   $\gamma'$   = buoyant unit weight, submerged unit weight
$\gamma_d$   =  $\gamma_{dry}$   = dry unit weight
$\gamma_{sat}$   = saturated unit weight
$LL$  = liquid limit
$PL$   = plastic limit
$LI$  = liquidity index
$PI$   = plasticity index
$GI$   = group index