# Geotechnical Engineering

**Symbols and Notations**

$e$ = void ratio

$n$ = porosity

$w$ = moisture content, water content

$s$ = specific gravity of any substance

$G$ = specific gravity of solids

$S$ = degree of saturation

$V$ = volume of soil mass

$V_a$ = volume of air

$V_w$ = volume of water

$V_s$ = volume of solids

$V_v$ = volume of voids

$W$ = total weight of soil

$W_w$ = weight of water

$W_s$ = weight of solids

$D_r$ = relative density

$\gamma_m$ = unit weight of soil mass, moist unit weight, bulk unit weight

$\gamma_s$ = unit weight of soil solids

$\gamma_w$ = unit weight of water

$\gamma_b$ = $\gamma'$ = buoyant unit weight, submerged unit weight

$\gamma_d$ = $\gamma_{dry}$ = dry unit weight

$\gamma_{sat}$ = saturated unit weight

$LL$ = liquid limit

$PL$ = plastic limit

$LI$ = liquidity index

$PI$ = plasticity index

$GI$ = group index