# Surveying and Transportation Engineering

Fundamentals of Surveying

Tape Measurements

Leveling

Angles and Directions

Transits and Theodolites

Traverse

Highway Curves

Topographic Surveys

Control Surveys

Construction Surveys

Hydrographic Surveys

Land Surveys

Photogrammetry

Stadia Measurement

$D = \dfrac{f}{i}s \cos \theta + (f + c)$

Subtense Bar

$D = \cot (\frac{1}{2}\theta)$

Tape Measurement

$TD = MD \pm Error$

Reduction to sea level

$\Delta D = D\left( \dfrac{h^2}{R^2} - \dfrac{h}{R} \right)$

Effect of curvature and refraction

$h_{cr} = 0.0675K^2$