Derivation of Formula

Derivation of Formula for Radius of Incircle

The radius of incircle is given by the formula

$r = \dfrac{A_t}{s}$


where At = area of the triangle and s = semi-perimeter.

Derivation of Cosine Law

The following are the formulas for cosine law for any triangles with sides a, b, c and angles A, B, C, respectively.

$a^2 = b^2 + c^2 - 2bc\cos A$

$b^2 = a^2 + c^2 - 2ac\cos B$

$c^2 = a^2 + b^2 - 2ab\cos C$


Derivation of Sine Law

For any triangles with vertex angles and corresponding opposite sides are A, B, C and a, b, c, respectively, the sine law is given by the formula...

$\dfrac{a}{\sin A} = \dfrac{b}{\sin B} = \dfrac{c}{\sin C}$


Derivation of Sum and Difference of Two Angles

Triangle used in sum and difference of two anglesThe sum and difference of two angles can be derived from the figure shown below.

Derivation of Formula for Sum of Years Digit Method (SYD)

The depreciation charge and the total depreciation at any time m using the sum-of-the-years-digit method is given by the following formulas:

Depreciation Charge:

$d_m = (FC - SV) \dfrac{n - m + 1}{SYD}$


Total depreciation at any time m

$D_m = (FC - SV) \dfrac{m(2n - m + 1)}{2 \times SYD}$


FC = first cost
SV = salvage value
n = economic life (in years)
m = any time before n (in years)
SYD = sum of years digit = 1 + 2 + ... + n = n(1 + n)/2

Derivation of formula for volume of a frustum of pyramid/cone

Frustum of a pyramid and frustum of a cone

Frustum of a pyramid and frustum of a cone


The formula for frustum of a pyramid or frustum of a cone is given by

$V = \dfrac{h}{3} \left[ \, A_1 + A_2 + \sqrt{A_1A_2} \, \right]$


h = perpendicular distance between A1 and A2 (h is called the altitude of the frustum)
A1 = area of the lower base
A2 = area of the upper base
Note that A1 and A2 are parallel to each other.

Solution to Problem 341 | Torsion of thin-walled tube

Problem 341
Derive the torsion formula τ = Tρ / J for a solid circular section by assuming the section is composed of a series of concentric thin circular tubes. Assume that the shearing stress at any point is proportional to its radial distance.

Derivation of the Double Angle Formulas

The Double Angle Formulas can be derived from Sum of Two Angles listed below:
$\sin (A + B) = \sin A \, \cos B + \cos A \, \sin B$   →   Equation (1)

$\cos (A + B) = \cos A \, \cos B - \sin A \, \sin B$   →   Equation (2)

$\tan (A + B) = \dfrac{\tan A + \tan B}{1 - \tan A \, \tan B}$   →   Equation (3)

Relationship Between Arithmetic Mean, Harmonic Mean, and Geometric Mean of Two Numbers

For two numbers x and y, let x, a, y be a sequence of three numbers. If x, a, y is an arithmetic progression then 'a' is called arithmetic mean. If x, a, y is a geometric progression then 'a' is called geometric mean. If x, a, y form a harmonic progression then 'a' is called harmonic mean.

Let AM = arithmetic mean, GM = geometric mean, and HM = harmonic mean. The relationship between the three is given by the formula

$AM \times HM = GM^2$


Below is the derivation of this relationship.

Derivation of Sum of Finite and Infinite Geometric Progression

Geometric Progression, GP
Geometric progression (also known as geometric sequence) is a sequence of numbers where the ratio of any two adjacent terms is constant. The constant ratio is called the common ratio, r of geometric progression. Each term therefore in geometric progression is found by multiplying the previous one by r.

Eaxamples of GP:

  • 3, 6, 12, 24, … is a geometric progression with r = 2
  • 10, -5, 2.5, -1.25, … is a geometric progression with r = -1/2



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