Trigonometry

The Tide in Bay of Fundy: The Depths of High and Low Tides

Problem
The tide in Bay of Fundy rises and falls every 13 hours. The depth of the water at a certain point in the bay is modeled by a function d = 5 sin (2π/13)t + 9, where t is time in hours and d is depth in meters. Find the depth at t = 13/4 (high tide) and t = 39/4 (low tide).

  1. The depth of the high tide is 15 meters and the depth of the low tide is 3 meters.
  2. The depth of the high tide is 16 meters and the depth of the low tide is 2 meters.
  3. The depth of the high tide is 14 meters and the depth of the low tide is 4 meters.
  4. The depth of the high tide is 17 meters and the depth of the low tide is 1 meter.

 

Longest Day of the Year: Summer Solstice

Problem
The number of hours daylight, D(t) at a particular time of the year can be approximated by
 

$D(t) = \dfrac{K}{2}\sin \left[ \dfrac{2\pi}{365}(t - 79) \right] + 12$

 

for t days and t = 0 corresponding to January 1. The constant K determines the total variation in day length and depends on the latitude of the locale. When is the day length the longest, assuming that it is NOT a leap year?

A.   December 20 C.   June 20
B.   June 19 D.   December 19

 

Derivation of Cosine Law

The following are the formulas for cosine law for any triangles with sides a, b, c and angles A, B, C, respectively.
 

$a^2 = b^2 + c^2 - 2bc\cos A$

$b^2 = a^2 + c^2 - 2ac\cos B$

$c^2 = a^2 + b^2 - 2ab\cos C$

 

Derivation of Sine Law

For any triangles with vertex angles and corresponding opposite sides are A, B, C and a, b, c, respectively, the sine law is given by the formula...
 

$\dfrac{a}{\sin A} = \dfrac{b}{\sin B} = \dfrac{c}{\sin C}$

 

Derivation of Pythagorean Identities

Right triangle with sides a, b, and c and angle thetaIn reference to the right triangle shown and from the functions of a right triangle:
a/c = sin θ
b/c = cos θ
c/b = sec θ
c/a = csc θ
a/b = tan θ
b/a = cot θ
 

Derivation of Sum and Difference of Two Angles

Triangle used in sum and difference of two anglesThe sum and difference of two angles can be derived from the figure shown below.
 

Derivation of the Double Angle Formulas

The Double Angle Formulas can be derived from Sum of Two Angles listed below:
$\sin (A + B) = \sin A \, \cos B + \cos A \, \sin B$   →   Equation (1)

$\cos (A + B) = \cos A \, \cos B - \sin A \, \sin B$   →   Equation (2)

$\tan (A + B) = \dfrac{\tan A + \tan B}{1 - \tan A \, \tan B}$   →   Equation (3)
 

Derivation of Pythagorean Theorem

Pythagorean Theorem
In any right triangle, the sum of the square of the two perpendicular sides is equal to the square of the longest side. For a right triangle with legs measures $a$ and $b$ and length of hypotenuse $c$, the theorem can be expressed in the form
 

$a^2 + b^2 = c^2$

 

 
 
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