Solution to Problem 142 Pressure Vessel

Problem 142
A pipe carrying steam at 3.5 MPa has an outside diameter of 450 mm and a wall thickness of 10 mm. A gasket is inserted between the flange at one end of the pipe and a flat plate used to cap the end. How many 40-mm-diameter bolts must be used to hold the cap on if the allowable stress in the bolts is 80 MPa, of which 55 MPa is the initial stress? What circumferential stress is developed in the pipe? Why is it necessary to tighten the bolt initially, and what will happen if the steam pressure should cause the stress in the bolts to be twice the value of the initial stress?
 

Thin-walled Pressure Vessels

A tank or pipe carrying a fluid or gas under a pressure is subjected to tensile forces, which resist bursting, developed across longitudinal and transverse sections.
 

TANGENTIAL STRESS, σt (Circumferential Stress)
Consider the tank shown being subjected to an internal pressure p. The length of the tank is L and the wall thickness is t. Isolating the right half of the tank:
 

Hydrostatic Pressure on Surfaces

Total Hydrostatic Force on Plane Surfaces

For horizontal plane surface submerged in liquid, or plane surface inside a gas chamber, or any plane surface under the action of uniform hydrostatic pressure, the total hydrostatic force is given by
 

$F = pA$

 

where p is the uniform pressure and A is the area.
 

In general, the total hydrostatic pressure on any plane surface is equal to the product of the area of the surface and the unit pressure at its center of gravity.
 

$F = p_{cg}A$

 

where pcg is the pressure at the center of gravity. For homogeneous free liquid at rest, the equation can be expressed in terms of unit weight γ of the liquid.
 

$F = \gamma \bar{h} A$

 

where   $\bar{h}$   is the depth of liquid above the centroid of the submerged area.