# Probability

$P = \dfrac{\text{number of favorable ways}}{\text{total number of ways}}$

## Probability that a Point Inside a Square Will Subtend an Obtuse Angle to Adjacent Corners of the Square

**Problem**

Point *P* is randomly chosen inside the square *ABCD*. Lines *AP* and *PB* are then drawn. What is the probability that angle *APB* is obtuse?

## 1 - Probability for cars to pass through a point on road in a 5-minute period

**Problem**

The number of cars passing a point on a road may be modelled by Poisson distribution. At an average, 4 cars enters the Caibaan Diversion Road in Tacloban City every 5 minutes. Find the probability that in a 5-minute period (a) two cars go past and (b) fewer than 3 cars go past.

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## Poisson Probability Distribution

The number of occurrences in a given time interval or in a given space can be modeled using *Poisson Distribution* if the following conditions are being satisfied:

- The events occur at random.
- The events are independent from one another.
- The average rate of occurrences is constant.
- There are no simultaneous occurrences.

The Poisson distribution is defined as

where *x* is a discrete random variable

*P*(

*x*) = probability for

*x*occurrences

*μ*= the mean number of occurrences

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**Problem**

Player *M* has Php1, and Player *N* has Php2. Each play gives one the players Php1 from the other. Player *M* is enough better than player *N* that he wins 2/3 of the plays. They play until one is bankrupt. What is the chance that Player *M* wins?

A. 3/4 | C. 4/7 |

B. 5/7 | D. 2/3 |

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**Problem**

In a common carnival game, a player tosses a penny from a distance of about 5 feet onto the surface of a table ruled in 1-inch squares. If the penny (3/4 inch in diameter) falls entirely inside a square, the player receives 5 cents but does not get his penny back; otherwise he loses his penny. If the penny lands on the table, what is his chance to win?

A. 5/16 | C. 9/256 |

B. 1/16 | D. 3/128 |

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**Problem**

From where he stands, one step toward the cliff would send the drunken man over the edge. He takes random steps, either toward or away from the cliff. At any step his probability of taking a step away is 2/3, of a step toward the cliff 1/3. What is his chance of escaping the cliff?

A. 2/27 | C. 4/27 |

B. 107/243 | D. 1/2 |

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**Problem**

Samuel Pepys wrote Isaac Newton to ask which of three events is more likely: that a person get (*a*) at least 1 six when 6 dice are rolled (*b*) at least two sixes when 12 dice are rolled, or (*c*) at least 3 sixes when 18 dice are rolled. What is the answer?

*a*) is more likely than (

*b*) and (

*c*)

B. (

*b*) is more likely than (

*a*) and (

*c*)

C. (

*c*) is more likely than (

*a*) and (

*b*)

D. (

*a*), (

*b*), and (

*c*) are equally likely

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**Problem**

Three marksman simultaneously shoot and hit a rapidly spinning spherical target. What is the probability that the three points of impact lie on the same hemisphere?

A. 0 | C. 1 |

B. 1/2 | D. 2/3 |

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