Symbols and Notations
γ, γm = Unit weight, bulk unit weight, moist unit weight
γd = Dry unit weight
γsat = Saturated unit weight
γb, γ' = Buoyant unit weight or effective unit weight
γs = Unit weight of solids
γw = Unit weight of water (equal to 9810 N/m3)
W = Total weight of soil
Ws = Weight of solid particles
Ww = Weight of water
V = Volume of soil
Vs = Volume of solid particles
Vv = Volume of voids
Vw = Volume of water
S = Degree of saturation
w = Water content or moisture content
G = Specific gravity of solid particles
Phase Diagram of Soil
Soil is composed of solids, liquids, and gases. Liquids and gases are mostly water and air, respectively. These two (water and air) are called voids which occupy between soil particles. The figure shown below is an idealized soil drawn into phases of solids, water, and air.
Weight-Volume Relationship from the Phase Diagram of Soil
total volume = volume of soilds + volume of voids
$V = V_s + V_v$
volume of voids = volume of water + volume of air
$V_v = V_w + V_a$
total weight = weight of solids + weight of water
$W = W_s + W_w$
A piece of wood 305 mm (1 ft) square and 3 m (10 ft) long, weighing 6288.46 N/m3 (40 lb/ft3), is submerged vertically in a body of water, its upper end being flush with the water surface. What vertical force is required to hold it in position?
A concrete surge chamber with circular cross section and vertical inner walls has an inside diameter of 100 ft. The outer walls taper uniformly. The outer walls taper uniformly ¼ in. to 1 ft. of rise, and at the base the thickness is 5 ft. The height of the surge chamber is 150 ft. above the pressure tunnel, and the material used in its construction weighs 150 lb. per cu. ft. Find the total weight of the chamber when full of water.
An igloo or Eskimo hut is built in the form of a hemispherical shell with an inside diameter of 12 ft. If the igloo is constructed of snow block having a uniform thickness of 2 ft and weighing 40 lb/ft3, find the weight of the igloo, neglecting the entrance. Also, if fresh air contains 0.04% carbon dioxide, find the amount of this gas in the igloo when freshly ventilated.