specific gravity

Physical Properties of Soil

Phase Diagram of Soil
Soil is composed of solids, liquids, and gases. Liquids and gases are mostly water and air, respectively. These two (water and air) are called voids which occupy between soil particles. The figure shown below is an idealized soil drawn into phases of solids, water, and air.
 

001-phase-diagram-of-soil.gif

 

Weight-Volume Relationship from the Phase Diagram of Soil
total volume = volume of soilds + volume of voids
$V = V_s + V_v$

volume of voids = volume of water + volume of air
$V_v = V_w + V_a$

total weight = weight of solids + weight of water
$W = W_s + W_w$
 

Problem 08 - Variation of Pressure

Problem
What is the pressure in pounds per square inch 4 ft below the surface of a liquid of sp. gr. 1.50 if the gas pressure on the surface is 0.4 atmosphere?
 

Properties of common materials

Material Unit weight
(kN/m3)
Density
(kg/m3)
Specific
Gravity
Aluminum 26.095 2660 2.66
Brass 81.423 8300 8.3
Brick 19.62 2000 2.0
Cast iron 70.632 7200 7.2
Concrete 23.544 2400 2.4
Copper 87.407 8910 8.91
Earth (dry) 12.557 1280 1.28
Earth (wet) 17.266 1760 1.76
Glass 25.408 2590 2.59
Ice 8.829 900 0.9
Lead 111.540 11,370 11.37
Mercury 133.416 13,600 13.6
Oil 8.829 900 0.9
Water (fresh) 9.81 1000 1.0
Water (sea) 10.104 1030 1.03
Wood (hard) 7.848 800 0.8
Wood (soft) 4.709 480 0.48
 
 
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