Infinite Series

Sequences and Series

Sequence is a succession of numbers formed according to some fixed rule. Example is

$1,~ 8,~ 27,~ 64,~ 125,~ ...$

which is a sequence so that the nth term is given by n3.

Series is the indicated sum of a sequence of numbers. Thus,

$a_1 + a_2 + a_3 + ... + a_n + ...$

is the series corresponding to the sequence $a_1,~ a_2,~ a_3,~ ... ,~a_n,~ ...$

Finite and Infinite Series

Derivation of Sum of Finite and Infinite Geometric Progression

Geometric Progression, GP
Geometric progression (also known as geometric sequence) is a sequence of numbers where the ratio of any two adjacent terms is constant. The constant ratio is called the common ratio, r of geometric progression. Each term therefore in geometric progression is found by multiplying the previous one by r.

Eaxamples of GP:

  • 3, 6, 12, 24, … is a geometric progression with r = 2
  • 10, -5, 2.5, -1.25, … is a geometric progression with r = -1/2


Derivation of Sum of Arithmetic Progression

Arithmetic Progression, AP

Arithmetic Progression (also called arithmetic sequence), is a sequence of numbers such that the difference between any two consecutive terms is constant. Each term therefore in an arithmetic progression will increase or decrease at a constant value called the common difference, d.

Examples of arithmetic progression are:

  • 2, 5, 8, 11,... common difference = 3
  • 23, 19, 15, 11,... common difference = -4