Quadratic equation is in the form

$ax^2 + bx + c = 0$

Where
a, b, & c = real-number constants
a & b = numerical coefficient or simply coefficients
a = coefficient of x2
b = coefficient of x
c = constant term or simply constant
a cannot be equal to zero while either b or c can be zero

Some quadratic equation may not look like the one above. The general appearance of quadratic equation is a second degree curve so that the degree power of one variable is twice of another variable. Below are examples of equations that can be considered as quadratic.

1.   $3x^2 + 2x - 8 = 0$

2.   $x^2 - 9 = 0$

3.   $2x^2 + 5x = 0$

4.   $\sin^2 \theta - 2\sin \theta - 1 = 0$

5.   $x - 5\sqrt{x} + 6 = 0$

6.   $10x^{1/3} + x^{1/6} - 2 = 0$

7.   $2\sqrt{\ln x} - 5\sqrt{\ln x} - 7 = 0$

For us to see that the above examples can be treated as quadratic equation, we take example no. 6 above, 10x1/3 + x1/6 - 2 = 0. Let x1/6 = z, thus, x1/3 = z2. The equation can now be written in the form 10z2 + z - 2 = 0, which shows clearly to be quadratic equation.

The equation ax2 + bx + c = 0 can be factored into the form

$(x - x_1)(x - x_2) = 0$

Where x1 and x2 are the roots of ax2 + bx + c = 0.

For the quadratic equation ax2 + bx + c = 0,

$x = \dfrac{-b \pm \sqrt{b^2 - 4ac}}{2a}$

The quantity b2 - 4ac inside the radical is called discriminat.
•   If b2 - 4ac = 0, the roots are real and equal.
•   If b2 - 4ac > 0, the roots are real and unequal.
•   If b2 - 4ac < 0, the roots are imaginary.

Sum and Product of Roots
If the roots of the quadratic equation ax2 + bx + c = 0 are x1 and x2, then

Sum of roots

$x_1 + x_2 = -\dfrac{b}{a}$

Product of roots

$x_1 x_2 = \dfrac{c}{a}$

You may see the derivation of formulas for sum and product of roots here.

0 likes