Fundamentals of Surveying
Tape Measurements
Leveling
Angles and Directions
Transits and Theodolites
Traverse
Highway Curves
Topographic Surveys
Control Surveys
Construction Surveys
Hydrographic Surveys
Land Surveys
Photogrammetry
 

Stadia Measurement
$D = \dfrac{f}{i}s \cos \theta + (f + c)$
 

Subtense Bar
$D = \cot (\frac{1}{2}\theta)$
 

Tape Measurement
$TD = MD \pm Error$
 

Reduction to sea level
$\Delta D = D\left( \dfrac{h^2}{R^2} - \dfrac{h}{R} \right)$
 

Effect of curvature and refraction
$h_{cr} = 0.0675K^2$
 

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